Civil Rights Movement

Civil Rights Movement

  • U.S. Ambassador To UN Raises Rohingya Issue With Myanmar Security Advisor

    NEW YORK, Oct 14 (Bernama) — Amid the growing concern being voiced worldwide over the Rohingya refugee crisis, with their more than half a millionRead More

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  • UK PM: Myanmar must stop violence

    Theresa May says the Rohingya exodus is a major humanitarian crisis The international community has delivered a clear message to Myanmar that it must stopRead More

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U.S. Ambassador To UN Raises Rohingya Issue With Myanmar Security Advisor

NEW YORK, Oct 14 (Bernama) — Amid the growing concern being voiced worldwide over the Rohingya refugee crisis, with their more than half a million refugees having fled from Myanmar to neighbouring Bangladesh, U.S. permanent representative to the United Nations, Ambassador Nikki Haley, held discussions on Thursday with U Thaung Tun, National Security Advisor of Myanmar on the Rohingya crisis.

Haley stressed the need for all sides to end violence immediately. This was, apparently, aimed at both the Myanmar security forces and also the Rohingyas militants who, according to international sources, unleashed the crisis by launching an attack on Myanmar’s security forces.

According to a statement issued by Hailey’s office, the U.S. permanent representative appealed to Myanmar to facilitate ‘the safe, dignified return of all those displaced as quickly as possible and called for humanitarian access to all affected by the violence’.

She also urged Myanmar to hold security officials and others found responsible for offenses against all affected communities accountable for their actions.

U Thaung, who has been in New York for some time, has been holding talks with UN officials and U.S. diplomats, trying to ?explain? the genesis of the crisis and Myanmar’s efforts to try to defuse it.

But his efforts have not been convincing, as far as the U.N. and other NGOs and, particularly, human rights groups are concerned; indeed, human rights groups have documented that an ethnic cleansing of the Rohingya Muslim minority was underway.

U Thaung has been telling American interlocutors that the Rohingya refugees who have fled the country may not want to return to their homes anyway, adding that “we can’t take just everybody – they must want to come back.”

He has been avoiding facing the U.S. media which has been trying hard to interview him.

Meanwhile, UN sources told Bernama that UN relief agencies are working overtime to grapple with the refugee outflow into Bangladesh which faces a humanitarian emergency with hundreds of thousands of refugees now depending on humanitarian assistance for shelter, food, water and other life-saving needs, says the United Nations migration agency.

“The seriousness of the situation cannot be over-emphasized,” said the chief of mission (Bangladesh) at the International Organization for Migration (IOM), Sarat Dash, in a statement.

While aid agencies said an estimated 536,000 people have fled Myanmar and arrived in Cox’s Bazar in Bangladesh over the past 47 days, the arrival numbers have spiked again with an additional 15,000 crossing into Bangladesh between October 9 to 11.

“These people are malnourished and there is insufficient access to clean water and sanitation in many of the spontaneous sites. They are highly vulnerable. They have fled conflict, experienced severe trauma and are now living in extremely difficult conditions,” Dash said.

Besides urgently needing additional funds, many experts are worried over the outbreak of diseases.

“The risk of an outbreak of communicable disease is very high given the crowded living conditions and the lack of adequate clean water and sanitation,” said IOM Senior Regional Health Officer Patrick Duigan, pointing out that maternal, newborn and child health care are also in desperately short supply.

Speaking to reporters at UN Headquarters in New York after a closed-door meeting with the Security Council, which included non-Council members from Myanmar and Bangladesh, as well as representatives of civil society, former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, who now chairs the Advisory Commission on Rakhine state, said he had held ‘good discussion’ focusing mainly on the report produced by the Commission which was welcomed by the UN in August.

“It was clear that everyone agrees on what needs to be done in the short-term: stopping the violence; getting humanitarian aid to those in need, and helping with the dignified and voluntary return for those [refugees] in Bangladesh,” he explained.

This particular point ‘is not going to be easy,’ he continued, stressing that the refugees would only go back if they had a sense of security and confidence that their lives would be better.

Annan recalled that his report had stated that the refugees not be put in camps and that they must be allowed to go back to their villages and helped to rebuild and reconstruct their lives.

He went on to say that key question of citizenship and verification was ‘a real problem for the Muslim community.’

Annan pointed out that State Counsellor Daw Aung San Suu Kyi had accepted the recommendations in his report and had agreed to set up an implementation committee.

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UK PM: Myanmar must stop violence

Theresa May says the Rohingya exodus is a major humanitarian crisis

The international community has delivered a clear message to Myanmar that it must stop the violence, British Prime Minister Theresa May has said during a Q&A session in Parliament.

She was replying to Will Quince, the Conservative MP for Colchester, on Wednesday. Quince, who recently visited Bangladesh, asked May what pressure the UK could put on Myanmar to end the persecution, so that the Rohingya can go back home.

Prime Minister May said the UK remained “deeply concerned” by what was happening to the Rohingya.

“We now know that there are over 500,000 refugees in Bangladesh,” she said. “It’s a major humanitarian crisis.”

Also Read- UN: Army in systematic bid to drive Rohingya from Myanmar

Myanmar said it launched a “security operation” after insurgents attacked police posts and an army base on August 25. However, a UN investigation found that the military operations had begun earlier, possibly in early August.

The crackdown targeting the Rohingya forced more than half a million members of the mainly-Muslim minority to flee to Bangladesh since August 25.

May said: “We have raised this [Rohingya issue] three times at the UN Security Council. There’s been a clear message delivered from the international community that the Burmese (Myanmar) authorities must stop the violence, allow safe return of refugees and allow full humanitarian access.”

The Rohingya are the largest stateless community and often described as the most persecuted minority in the world. Naypyitaw denies them citizenship and claims they are illegal immigrants from Bangladesh.

But the latest chapter in violence is unprecedented, which the UN described as a “textbook example of ethnic cleansing” and said the military campaign aimed at permanently driving away the Rohingya from Rakhine state.

British Prime Minister May said her country had suspended “any practical defence engagement that we had with Burma because of our concerns”.

In the last UN General Assembly, Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina proposed creating a “safe zone” in Myanmar for the Rohingya under UN supervision.

Also Read- Bangladesh PM: If necessary, we will eat one meal a day to feed the Rohingya

Will Quince told parliament that what he had seen during his visit to the Rohingya refugee camps in Bangladesh “was truly harrowing”. “It can only be described as a humanitarian disaster,” he said.

Bangladesh already had been hosting an estimated 400,000 Rohingya before the latest influx. Hundreds of thousands of forcibly displaced persons are believed to be waiting along the Myanmar border, waiting for a chance to sneak into Bangladesh.

May said the UK had been providing support through its international development and aid. “We provided money to the Red Cross in Burma and have been providing bilateral donations to deal with the refugees, to support the refugees who have crossed into Bangladesh,” she said.

Sheikh Hasina has said that her government would continue to provide support to the Rohingya until they returned to their homeland.

If necessary, we will eat one meal a day and share another meal with these distressed people,” she said. “After all, we are human beings and we stand for mankind.”

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Statement by Sweden at the UN Security Council Arria Formula Meeting on Myanmar

National Statement delivered by Ambassador Carl Skau on behalf of Sweden at the United Nations Security Council Arria Formula Meeting on Myanmar, 13 October 2017, New York.

Mr Chair,

Let me join Francois and Matthew in welcoming you, Mr. Kofi Annan, and in thanking you for your extremely insightful and timely briefing today. We commend your leadership of the Advisory Commission on Rakhine State, and we fully support the recommendations in the Commission’s report.

Fifty days have now passed since the first reports of wide-scale violence in Rakhine began to emerge. Since then a crisis of immense proportions has unfolded –in Rakhine, and across the Naf River in Bangladesh, where more than half a million Rohingya men, women and children have fled. There are clear implications for regional peace and stability. The crisis continues – 14 000 people have crossed the border in recent days. Inside Rakhine, we know little about the conditions for those that remain.

An urgent and swift response is now needed. The Secretary-General laid out a clear way forward to the Council on 28 September.

First, there must be an immediate and independently verified end to all violence. We note the government’s statement that violence has ended; however, reports of systematic human rights violations continue. There is an urgent need to establish the facts and circumstances on the ground. The Human Rights Council Independent Fact Finding Mission should be provided access without delay.

Secondly, we welcome the State Counsellor’s commitment to enhance the ability to provide humanitarian assistance effectively in Rakhine. This commitment should now be implemented without delay. The potential for an even worse humanitarian catastrophe exists. The UN and its partners need full and unhindered humanitarian access.

Thirdly, conditions must now urgently be put in place to ensure that all those who have fled, can return to their places of origin, in a safe, voluntary, dignified and sustainable manner. We welcome the statement from the State Counsellor yesterday regarding the return of refugees as well as the ongoing dialogue between Myanmar and Bangladesh on this issue. The United Nations must now be invited to assist this process, in line with international standards.

For voluntary return to take place, refugees need dignified conditions to return to, where they can begin to rebuild their lives, free from fear and with confidence in the future. This requires real change on the ground. We need a ‘new deal’ in Rakhine, to ensure an end to discrimination, respect for human rights and to provide for social inclusion.

The Rakhine Commission Report provides the framework for such a ‘new deal’. Implementation of its recommendations is urgent. The government has stated its commitment to implement them. The Security Council, regional actors and the broader international community have all voiced their support. This consensus provides a unique opportunity for Myanmar and its international partners to work together towards a lasting solution to the situation in Rakhine State.

Close cooperation and partnership with the United Nations is essential. The UN and its partners have the capacity to support both humanitarian and longer term development efforts. Constructive engagement with the UN can also allow the government to build much-needed trust with the broader international community, as Myanmar continues its democratic transition. The United Nations stands ready to support, however, narratives and rhetoric that seek to undermine its ability to do its work need to be countered.

Regional actors also have a critical role to play. We thank Bangladesh for its generosity to those fleeing the violence. We welcome the constructive role being played by Indonesia, and encourage them to continue to engage actively on this issue. We also appreciate the important role being played by ASEAN, and stand ready to support their efforts.

Mr Chair,

The scale of the crisis is immense. At the same time, an opportunity now exists for an historic shift that would put Myanmar firmly on the path to peace and stability. This is a critical moment. The history books will record the decisions that are made in the coming days and weeks. How those who have fled can return; the conditions waiting for them when they do; and the steps taken to build trust and a peaceful future for all communities in Rakhine.

The international community stands ready to support. We urge the Government to take this opportunity to engage with us.

Thank you

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Myanmar army opens probe amid reports of killings, abuse of Rohingya Muslims

YANGON (Reuters) – Myanmar’s military has launched an internal probe into the conduct of soldiers during a counteroffensive that has sent more than half a million Rohingya Muslims fleeing to Bangladesh, many saying they witnessed killings, rape and arson by troops.

Coordinated Rohingya insurgent attacks on 30 security posts on Aug. 25 sparked a ferocious military response in the Muslim-majority northern part of Rakhine state that the United Nations has said was ethnic cleansing.

A committee led by military Lieutenant-General Aye Win has begun an investigation into the behavior of military personnel, the office of the commander in chief said on Friday, insisting the operation was justified under Buddhist-majority Myanmar’s constitution.

According to a statement posted on Senior General Min Aung Hlaing’s Facebook page, the panel will ask, “Did they follow the military code of conduct? Did they exactly follow the command during the operation? After that (the committee) will release full information.”

Myanmar is refusing entry to a U.N. panel that was tasked with investigating allegations of abuses after a smaller military counteroffensive launched in October 2016.

But domestic investigations, including a previous internal military probe, have largely dismissed refugees’ claims of abuses committed during security forces’ “clearance operations”.

Thousands of refugees have continued to arrived cross the Naf river separating Myanmar’s Rakhine state and Bangladesh in recent days, even though Myanmar insists military operations ceased on Sept. 5.

Aid agencies estimate that 536,000 people have arrived in the Cox’s Bazar district, straining scarce resources of aid groups and local communities.

About 200,000 Rohingya were already in Bangladesh after fleeing persecution in Myanmar, where they have long been denied citizenship and faced restrictions on their movements and access to basic services.

Myanmar’s de facto leader, Aung San Suu Kyi, has pledged accountability for human rights abuses and says Myanmar will accept back refugees who can prove they were residents of Myanmar.

The powerful army chief has taken a harder stance, however, telling the U.S. ambassador in Myanmar this week that the exodus of Rohingya, who he said were non-native “Bengalis,” was exaggerated.

In comments to Japan’s ambassador carried in state media on Friday, Min Aung Hlaing denied ethnic cleansing was taking place on the grounds that photos showed Muslims “departing calmly rather than fleeing in terror”.

Former U.N. chief Kofi Annan, who led a commission set up by Suu Kyi to find solutions for the ethnically and religiously divided Rakhine, briefed the U.N. Security Council and other key states in an informal closed-door meeting on Friday.

Some council members are exploring if the 15-member body could agree a formal statement or even a resolution to call for an end to the violence, for full aid access, the safe return of refugees, access for a U.N. fact-finding mission to ensure accountability and implementation of Annan’s recommendations.

Annan said he hoped any possible Security Council resolution “urges the government to really press ahead and create conditions that will allow the refugees to return in dignity and with a sense of security, they should not be returned to camps.”

Additional reporting by Michelle Nichols at the United Nations and Krishna N. Das in New Delhi; Editing by Nick Macfie and James Dalgleish

Our Standards:The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.
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႐ုိဟင္ဂ်ာဟု သံုးစြဲေနျခင္းက ရခိုင္အေရး ပိုမို႐ႈတ္ေထြးေစ

႐ုိဟင္ဂ်ာလို႔ သံုးစြဲေနတာဟာ ရခိုင္အေရးကုိ ပိုမုိ႐ႈတ္ေထြးေစတယ္လို႔ ၈၈ ေက်ာင္းသားေခါင္းေဆာင္ ဦးကိုကိုႀကီးက ေျပာဆိုလိုက္ပါတယ္။

ဂ်ပန္ႏိုင္ငံျခားေရးဝန္ႀကီးဌာနႏွင့္ နိပြန္ေဖာင္ေဒးရွင္းတို႔ရဲ႕ ဖိတ္ၾကားခ်က္အရ ဂ်ပန္ႏိုင္ငံကုိ ေရာက္ရွိေနၾကတဲ့ ႏိုင္ငံေရးပါတီျဖစ္ေျမာက္ေရးေကာ္မတီဝင္ေတြ သတင္းစာရွင္းလင္းပြဲကိုု ေအာက္တိုဘာ ၁၁ ရက္ေန႔က တိုက်ဳိၿမိဳ႕မွာ ျပဳလုုပ္ခဲ့စဥ္ ဂ်ပန္ မိုင္းနီခ်ီ သတင္းစာႀကီးရဲ႕ ေမးျမန္းခ်က္ကို ျပန္လည္ေျဖၾကားေျပာဆိုခဲ့တာပါ။

ဦးကိုကိုႀကီးဦးေဆာင္တဲ့ ႏိုင္ငံေရးပါတီ ျဖစ္ေျမာက္ေရးေကာ္မတီဝင္ ၈ ဦးဟာ တိုက်ဳိၿမိဳ႕ရွိ ဝန္ႀကီးခ်ဳပ္႐ံုး၊ ႏိုင္ငံျခားေရး၀န္ႀကီးဌာန၊ သယ္ယူပို႔ေဆာင္ေရးအပါအ၀င္ ေငြေၾကးစီမံခန္႔ခြဲမႈ ဆိုင္ရာနည္းပညာေတြ အပါအ၀င္ေလ့လာမႈေတြကို ေအာက္တိုဘာ ၁၆ ရက္အထိ ဂ်ပန္ႏိုုင္ငံမွာ ၇ ရက္ၾကာ ေနထိုင္ေလ့လာၾကမွာျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

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Brutal attacks on Rohingya meant to make their return almost impossible – UN human rights report

GENEVA (11 October 2017) – Brutal attacks against Rohingya in northern Rakhine State have been well-organised, coordinated and systematic, with the intent of not only driving the population out of Myanmar but preventing them from returning to their homes, a new UN report based on interviews conducted in Bangladesh has found.

The report by a team from the UN Human Rights Office, who met with the newly arrived Rohingya in Cox’s Bazar from 14 to 24 September 2017, states that human rights violations committed against the Rohingya population were carried out by Myanmar security forces often in concert with armed Rakhine Buddhist individuals. The report, released on Wednesday, is based on some 65 interviews with individuals and groups.

It also highlights a strategy to “instil deep and widespread fear and trauma – physical, emotional and psychological” among the Rohingya population.

More than 500,000 Rohingya have fled to Bangladesh since the Myanmar security forces launched an operation in response to alleged attacks by militants on 25 August against 30 police posts and a regimental headquarters. The report states the “clearance operations” started before 25 August 2017, and as early as the beginning of August.

The UN Human Rights Office is gravely concerned for the safety of hundreds of thousands of Rohingya who remain in northern Rakhine State amid reports the violence is still ongoing, and calls on authorities to immediately allow humanitarian and human rights actors unfettered access to the stricken areas.

The report cites testimony from witnesses that security forces scorched dwellings and entire villages, were responsible for extrajudicial and summary executions, rape and other forms of sexual violence, torture and attacks on places of worship. Eyewitnesses reported numerous killings, saying some victims were deliberately targeted and others were killed through explosions, fire and stray bullets.

A 12-year old girl from Rathedaung township described how “the [Myanmar security forces and Rakhine Buddhist individuals] surrounded our house and started to shoot. It was a situation of panic – they shot my sister in front of me, she was only seven years old. She cried and told me to run. I tried to protect her and care for her, but we had no medical assistance on the hillside and she was bleeding so much that after one day she died. I buried her myself.

The report states that in some cases, before and during the attacks, megaphones were used to announce: “You do not belong here – go to Bangladesh. If you do not leave, we will torch your houses and kill you.

Credible information indicates that the Myanmar security forces purposely destroyed the property of the Rohingyas, targeting their houses, fields, food-stocks, crops, livestock and even trees, to render the possibility of the Rohingya returning to normal lives and livelihoods in the future in northern Rakhine almost impossible.

UN Human Rights chief Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein, who has described the Government operations in northern Rakhine State as “a textbook example of ethnic cleansing,” has also urged the Government to immediately end its “cruel” security operation. By denying the Rohingya population their political, civil, economic and cultural rights, including the right to citizenship, he said, the Government’s actions appear to be “a cynical ploy to forcibly transfer large numbers of people without possibility of return.”

The report indicates that efforts were taken to effectively erase signs of memorable landmarks in the geography of the Rohingya landscape and memory in such a way that a return to their lands would yield nothing but a desolate and unrecognizable terrain.

Information received also indicates that the Myanmar security forces targeted teachers, the cultural and religious leadership, and other people of influence of the Rohingya community in an effort to diminish Rohingya history, culture and knowledge.

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ARSA အၾကမ္းဖက္ အဖြဲ႕ ကိစၥ ဦးဟန္ေညာင္ေဝ ႏွင့္ ေမးျမန္းခ်က္

ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္ ေျမာက္ပိုင္းတြင္ အၾကမ္းဖက္ တိုက္ခိုက္မွုမ်ား ျပဳလုပ္ေနေသာ ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာ ကယ္တင္ေရး တပ္မ ေတာ္ (ARSA) သည္ ၿပီးခဲ့သည့္ စက္တင္ဘာလအတြင္း က အပစ္အခတ္ ရပ္စဲၿပီး အစိုးရႏွင့္ ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရး ေတြ႕ဆုံ ေဆြးေႏြးရန္ အသင့္ရွိေၾကာင္း ေျပာဆိုထားေသာ္လည္း အစိုးရက လက္ခံတုံ႔ျပန္ျခင္း မရွိေပ။

ကာကြယ္ေရး ဝန္ႀကီး ဒု ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ႀကီး စိန္ဝင္းကလည္း မည္သည့္ အစိုးရကမွ အၾကမ္းဖက္အဖြဲ႕အစည္းကို ညႇိႏွိုင္းမည္ မဟုတ္ ေၾကာင္း၊ ၎တို႔အေနျဖင့္လည္း အသိအမွတ္ျပဳ ညႇိႏွိုင္းရန္ မရွိေၾကာင္း ဧရာဝတီကို ေျပာ ဆိုထားသည္။

ထို ARSA ၏ လုပ္ေဆာင္ခ်က္မ်ားႏွင့္ ပတ္သက္ၿပီး ျမန္မာ့ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရး လုပ္ငန္းစဥ္တြင္ ပါဝင္ ေဆာင္ရြက္ ေနေသာ ဦးဟန္ေညာင္ေဝ ကို ဧရာဝတီ အဂၤလိပ္ပိုင္း သတင္းေထာက္ ၿငိမ္းၿငိမ္းက ေတြ႕ဆုံ ေမးျမန္းထားပါ သည္။

ဦးဟန္ေညာင္ေဝသည္ ျမန္မာနိုင္ငံ၏ပထမဆုံး သမၼတ စပ္ေရႊသိုက္၏ သားတဦးျဖစ္ၿပီး အစိုးရႏွင့္ တိုင္းရင္း သား လက္နက္ကိုင္ အဖြဲ႕မ်ားၾကား အပစ္အခတ္ရပ္စဲေရး ေဆြးေႏြးဝိုင္းမ်ားတြင္ ပါဝင္ ေဆာင္ရြက္ေနေသာ ဘယ္လ္ဂ်ီယမ္နိုင္ငံ ဘရပ္ဆဲလ္ၿမိဳ႕ အေျခစိုက္ ဥေရာပ-ျမန္မာ႐ုံး (EBO)၏ အမွုေဆာင္ ဒါရိုက္တာ ျဖစ္သည္။

ေမး။ ။ ARSA က အစိုးရရဲ့ ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရး လုပ္ငန္းစဥ္မွာပါဖိုု႔ ေျပာတာ ေတြ႕လာရတယ္။ အစိုးရဘက္ကေတာ့ လက္မခံ ထား ဘူး။ ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရး ျဖစ္စဥ္မွာ ပါဝင္ကူညီေနတဲ့သူ တေယာက္အေနနဲ႔ ဒီအေပၚမွာ ဘယ္လို အျမင္ရွိ ပါလဲ။

ေျဖ။ ။ က်ေနာ့္ အေနနဲ႔ကေတာ့ အတူတူပဲေလ။ လက္နက္ကိုင္ၿပီး အေျဖရွာတာက မလြယ္ဘူး။ နိုင္ငံေရး ေဆြး ေႏြးပြဲနဲ႔ ရွာမယ္ ဆိုရင္ ျဖစ္နိုင္တဲ့ အလားအလာ ရွိတာေပါ့။ သူတို႔ကိုယ္တိုင္က ေဆြးေႏြးခ်င္တယ္ ဆိုတာ တ ကယ္ေတာ့ ေဆြးေႏြး သင့္တယ္။ ၾကည့္ေပါ့။ သူတိုက ဘာေၾကာင့္မို႔ တိုက္ေနတာလဲ။ ဘာေတြ လိုခ်င္တာလဲ။ ေပးနိုင္မေပးနိုင္တာက တျခား။ ဒါေပမယ့္ သူတို႔က စကားေျပာခ်င္တယ္ဆို ေျပာသင့္တယ္လို႔ ျမင္တယ္။

ေမး။ ။ သူတို႔အဖြဲ႕ကို အစိုးရက အၾကမ္းဖက္အဖြဲ႕ သတ္မွတ္ထားေတာ့ ေျပာဆိုေဆြးေႏြးဖို႔ဆိုတာ ျဖစ္နိုင္ပါ့မ လား။

ေျဖ။ ။ အဲဒါကလည္း ဒီလိုေလ။ သူတို႔ သတ္မွတ္တဲ့ကိစၥဟာ သတ္မွတ္သင့္သလား ဆိုတဲ့ ေမးခြန္းရွိတယ္။ ဘာ ေၾကာင့္လဲဆို သူတို႔ စတိုက္တုန္းက (ေအာက္တိုဘာ) ၂၀၁၆ တုန္းက လုံး၀ အၾကမ္းဖက္ပုံ မေပၚဘူး။ ေနာက္ပိုင္း ေပၚခ်င္ေပၚမွာေပါ့။ သူတို႔ ေျပာတဲ့ေနရာမွာလည္း သူတိုု႔က အၾကမ္းဖက္ခ်င္တယ္ ဘာတယ္ မဟုတ္ပါဘူး။ သူ တို႔ နိုင္ငံတကာနဲ႔လည္း မခ်ိတ္ပါဘူးဆိုၿပီး ေျပာေနတာ။ သူတိုု႔ေျပာတဲ့အတိုင္းကို စုံစမ္း ၾကည့္သင့္တယ္။ သူ တို႔နဲ႔ ေဆြးေႏြး ၾကည့္သင့္တယ္။ အေျဖရွာရင္ေတာ့ လြယ္သြားမယ္လို႔ က်ေနာ္ျမင္တယ္။

ေမး။ ။ အခု ARSA က တိုက္ရိုက္ အစိုးရကို ကမ္းလွမ္းေနတဲ့ သေဘာ ေတြ႕ရတယ္။ ၾကားခံ အဖြဲ႕အစည္းေတြ ဘာေတြ နဲ႔ အန္ကယ္တို႔ကို ဆက္သြယ္တာေတြ ရွိလား။

ေျဖ။ ။ မရွိဘူး။ သူတို႔ကေတာ့ အခု ေလာေလာဆယ္ အစိုးရဆီ တိုက္ရိုက္ပဲ ေျပာတယ္။ အစိုးရက ဘယ္လို တုံ႔ျပန္ လာမလဲ။ အစိုးရကေတာ့ မတုံ႔ျပန္ဘူးလို႔ က်ေနာ္ျမင္တယ္။

ေမး။ ။ ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ အမ်ားစုက သူတို႔ဟာ ဌာေန တိုင္းရင္းသား မဟုတ္ဘူး။ မြတ္စလင္လို႔ပဲ သတ္မွတ္တယ္။ သူတို႔ကိုယ္တိုင္ ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာလို႔ သုံးတဲ့ အသုံးအႏွုန္းအေပၚ ဘယ္လိုျမင္ပါလဲ။

ေျဖ။ ။ အဲဒီဟာက က်ေနာ္ျမင္တာက ဒီႏွစ္ေပါင္း ၅၀ ေက်ာ္ စစ္ဘက္ အစိုးရက သမိုင္းဖ်က္ထားတယ္လို႔ ျမင္ တယ္။ ဘာေၾကာင့္လဲဆို က်ေနာ္သိတယ္။ အရင္တုန္းက ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာ (အသုံး) ကို သုံးေနၾကတယ္။ တပ္မေတာ္ ကိုယ္တိုင္က ဒီ ၁၉၆၀ ခုႏွစ္ေလာက္မွာ ေမယုခရိုင္ ဆိုတာ ဖြဲ႕ေပးတယ္။ အဲဒါက တိုင္းရင္းသား ျဖစ္တဲ့ ရိုဟင္ ဂ်ာ အတြက္ဆိုၿပီး သူတို႔ ကိုယ္တိုင္ေျပာတယ္။ ေျပာခ်င္တာက တခါမွ မရွိဘူး ဆိုတာလည္း မဟုတ္ဘူး။ ရွိဖူး ပါ တယ္။ အဲဒါမကဘူး ျမန္မာ့ အသံ အသံလႊင့္႐ုံမွာ ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာ စကား အစီအစဥ္ ရွိခဲ့တယ္။

ေမး။ ။ အဲဒါကို (ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာ စကားအစီအစဥ္) အခု ျပန္ေထာက္ျပေနတာေတြ ရွိတယ္။ အဲဒါအျပင္ ေမယုခရိုင္တို႔။ ၁၉၉၃ ခုႏွစ္က ဒုကၡသည္ ျပန္လည္ လက္ခံေရးဆိုင္ရာ စာခ်ဳပ္ေတြမွာ ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာ ဆိုတဲ့ စကားလုံး မပါဘဲ ရခိုင္ ျပည္နယ္ ေျမာက္ပိုင္းက မြတ္စလင္လို႔ပဲ သုံးထားတာ မလား။

ေျဖ။ ။ ေမယုမွာ သုံးတယ္။ အဲဒီတုန္းက အစိုးရဘက္က လက္မခံခ်င္ေတာ့ဘူး။ သူတို႔ ေျပာတာက နိုင္ငံေရးအရ ထြင္ ယူတယ္ ေျပာတယ္။ ဒီဟာက လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး ရွုေထာင့္နဲ႔ ၾကည့္ရင္ လူမ်ိဳးတိုင္းဟာ ကိုယ့္ဟာကို ထြင္ လို႔ရ တယ္။ ဥပမာ ထိုင္းဆိုရင္လည္း သူတို႔ဟာ ထိုင္း လို႔ ေျပာတယ္။ တျခားလူေတြက သူတို႔ကို ေခၚတာ Siam (စယမ္) ေလ။ ရွမ္းဆိုရင္လည္း ဒီလိုပဲ။ ရွမ္းကို ေခၚတာ ရွမ္းေပါ့။ ရွမ္း ခပ္မ်ားမ်ားကေျပာရင္ သူတို႔က တိုင္း လူမ်ိဳးေပါ့။

ေမး။ ။ တိုင္းရင္းသား အေတာ္မ်ားမ်ားက ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာဆိုတာ တိုင္းရင္းသား မဟုတ္တဲ့ အတြက္ေၾကာင့္ လက္ မခံနိုင္ဘူး ေျပာၾကတယ္။ တခ်ိဳ႕က်ေတာ့လည္း ဘာမွ မေျပာဘူး။ အန္ကယ့္အေနနဲ႔က်ေတာ့ ဒီလို ေထာက္ခံျခင္း မေထာက္ခံ ျခင္းထက္ လူသားခ်င္း စာနာမွုဘက္ကပဲ ၾကည့္ၾကည့္၊ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး ဘက္ကပဲ ၾကည့္ၾကည့္ ဘယ္ လိုအေျခအေန ျဖစ္သင့္တယ္လို႔ထင္လဲ။

ေျဖ။ ။ က်ေနာ္ျမင္တာကေတာ့ ဒီ ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာ ကိစၥက သူတို႔ကို ဖိႏွိပ္ထားတာ ႏွစ္ေပါင္းၾကာၿပီ။ ဒါ ျပန္ၾကည့္ ရင္ ေတြ႕ မယ္။ ဆိုေတာ့ ဘယ္လူမ်ိဳးမဆို အဲဒီလိုမ်ိဳး မဖိႏွိပ္သင့္ဘူး။ က်ေနာ္ယုံတာေတာ့ ခပ္မ်ားမ်ားက နိုင္ငံသား ပဲ။ တခ်ိဳ႕က ေျပာတာေပါ့။ စာရြက္စာတမ္း အေထာက္အထား မရွိဘူး။ တိုင္းရင္းသား ေဒသမွာလည္း မွတ္ပုံ တင္ မရွိတာေတြ အမ်ားႀကီးပဲ။ ဘာေၾကာင့္လဲ။ က်ေနာ္တို႔ နိုင္ငံက အေနာက္နိုင္ငံလို မဟုတ္ဘူး။ လူတိုင္းက ID ကတ္ေတြ ဘာေတြ မရွိၾကဘူး။ အဲဒီလိုမ်ိဳး ျငင္းလို႔ေတာ့ ခက္မယ္။ ဒါေပမယ့္ အဲဒီေဒသမွာ ေနလာတာ လြတ္လပ္ ေရး ကာလတုန္းက ေနလာတာ ရွင္းတယ္။ တခ်ိဳ႕ ခိုးလာ ေနတယ္။ ရာခိုင္ႏွုန္းနဲ႔ မမ်ားပါဘူး။ တ႐ုတ္ဘက္ က လည္း အမ်ားႀကီး ဝင္လာ တာပဲ။

ေမး။ ။ အဲဒီ ေဒသမွာအျပင္ တနိုင္ငံလုံးမွာ နိုင္ငံသားျပဳခြင့္ ကတ္နဲ႔ေနၾကတဲ့ တျခား ဟိႏၵဴလို၊ တ႐ုတ္လို လူေတြ ရွိ တယ္။ ေနၾကတယ္။ ဒါေပမယ့္ မြတ္စလင္နဲ႔ခ်ည္း ျပႆနာ ျဖစ္ၾကတာ မ်ားတယ္။ အဲဒီေဒသမွာ ေဒသခံေတြရဲ့ စိုးရိမ္ ခ်က္က နယ္ေျမစိုးမိုးေရး ဆိုင္ရာ စိုးရိမ္ခ်က္ေတြ ရွိတယ္ဆိုတာ သိရတယ္။ အဲဒီအေပၚ ဘာေျပာနိုင္မလဲ။

ေျဖ။ ။ အဲဒါကေတာ့ က်ေနာ္ျမင္တာက ေျခာက္ထားလို႔ပါ။ သူတို႔က မိန္းမ ေလးေယာက္ ရွိတယ္။ လူဦးေရမ်ား လာ မယ္။ မြတ္စလင္က လႊမ္းမိုးမယ္။ အဲဒီလိုမ်ိဳးေတြ ေျခာက္ထားလို႔။ တကယ္ ျပန္ၾကည့္မယ္ဆိုရင္ မေလး ရွားနိုင္ငံ၊ အင္ဒိုနီးရွားနိုင္ငံက မြတ္စလင္ေတြခ်ည္းပဲ သူတို႔က က်ေနာ္တို႔ကို ဘာလာလုပ္လဲ။ ဘာမွ မလုပ္ပါဘူး။ သူတို႔ဟာ သူတို႔ပဲ ေနတယ္။ ဆိုေတာ့ ဒီမွာရွိတဲ့ မြတ္စလင္ေတြလည္း က်ေနာ္ တို႔ကို လာလႊမ္းမိုးမယ္လို႔ မျဖစ္နိုင္ ဘူး။ အခုက ၄ ရာခိုင္ႏွုန္းေလာက္ပဲ ရွိတယ္။ အဲဒီလိုမ်ိဳးေတြ။ တကယ္လက္ေတြ႕ ၾကည့္မယ္ဆိုရင္ ဘယ္လိုမွ မျဖစ္နိုင္ဘူး။ ဒီ တျခား တိုင္းရင္းသားထဲမွာေတာင္ မွ ျမန္မာျပည္ရဲ့ သမၼတ ဝင္လုပ္ဖို႔က မျဖစ္နိုင္ဘူး။ ခပ္မ်ား မ်ားက ဗမာ ျဖစ္ရမယ္ေလ။ ဆိုေတာ့ ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာက ဘယ္လိုလာ လုပ္မလဲဆိုတာ မျဖစ္နိုင္ပါဘူး။ စိုးရိမ္မွု ေတြက ေတာ့ ႀကီးတယ္။ ဒါကလည္း ေျခာက္ထားတဲ့ လူေတြရွိလို႔ ျဖစ္တယ္။

ေမး။ ။ တဖက္က ျပန္ၾကည့္ရင္ တိုင္းရင္းသားေတြထဲမွာ သူတို႔ကိုယ္ပိုင္ အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ခြင့္ျပည္နယ္ ေတာင္းၾကတယ္။ ၀ ဆိုလည္း သူတိုရဲ့၀ ျပည္နယ္ ေတာင္းတယ္။ မြတ္စလင္ကလည္း မြတ္စလင္ ျပည္နယ္ေတာင္းမယ္ဆိုတဲ့ စိုးရိမ္ခ်က္ ေတြ ရွိၾကတယ္။

ေျဖ။ ။ ရွိတာေပါ့။ ေၾကာက္တာကို။ ဒီမွာကလည္း ဒီလိုုပဲ။ အခုလည္း တိုုင္းရင္းသားဘက္မွာ အျငင္းအခုံ ျဖစ္ၾကတယ္။ ကိုယ္ပိုင္နယ္ေၿမ ရခ်င္တယ္ဆိုတာ ဘာေၾကာင့္မိုရခ်င္လဲ။ ခပ္မ်ားမ်ား ျပန္ ေကာင္းေကာင္း ေဆြးေႏြးၾကည့္ရင္ သူတို က သူတိုကိုယ္ကို ကာကြယ္ခ်င္တယ္။ သူတို႔ရဲ့ အခြင့္အေရးကို ရခ်င္တယ္။ အဲဒါေၾကာင့္ သူတို႔က ျပည္နယ္ လိုုခ်င္ တယ္။ တကယ္ ဥပေဒအရ လူနည္းစုကို ေစာင့္ေရွာက္ထားတယ္၊ ဘယ္သူမွ ႏွိမ္ႏွင္း လို႔ မရဘူး၊ လူတိုင္းက အခြင့္အေရး ရွိတယ္ဆိုရင္ ဒီကိစၥေတြက ေလ်ာ့သြားမွာပဲ။ အခုက လူတိုင္းက စိတ္ သိပ္ျပင္းထန္တယ္။ အရင္တုန္းက ဖိႏွိပ္ ခံထားရတာကိုး။ ဥပမာ ကိုယ့္ဘာသာစကားကို သင္လိုမရဘူး။ အဲဒီလို ဆိုရင္ အဲဒီလိုမ်ိဳးဆို လူေတြက ပိုသင္ခ်င္လာေရာ။ သူတို႔အမ်ိဳးကို ကာကြယ္ခ်င္တဲ့ စိတ္ေတြ ရွိလာေရာ။

ေမး။ ။ အခု အန္ကယ္ေျပာတာကို နားလည္ရမယ္ဆိုရင္ ARSA က အခု တိုင္းရင္းသား လက္နက္ကိုင္အဖြဲ႕ေတြ နဲ႔ ေဖာ္ေဆာင္ေနတဲ့ ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရးျဖစ္စဥ္မွာ ပါဖို တျခား တိုင္းရင္းသား လက္နက္ကိုင္အဖြဲ႕ေတြနဲ႔ တန္းညႇိတာကို လက္ခံတဲ့သေဘာလား။

ေျဖ။ ။ က်ေနာ့္အေနနဲ႔ကေတာ့ ဒီထဲကို မဝင္ရင္ေတာင္ အနည္းဆုံးေတာ့ သူတိုနဲ႔ ေဆြးေႏြးသင့္တယ္။ လမ္းရွာ သင့္တယ္။ ဒီထဲမွာ ပါနိုင္ရင္ေတာ့ တမ်ိဳးေပါ့ေနာ္။ မပါနိုင္ရင္လည္း ဘယ္လိုအေျဖရွာမလဲ ဆိုတာ။ တိုက္ ေနမယ့္ အစား။ ကရင္တို႔ ရွမ္းတိုနဲ႔ တိုက္ေနတာ ႏွစ္ေပါင္း ၇၀ မၿပီးနိုင္ဘူး။ ဒီဟာလည္း ၿပီးနိုင္မွာ မဟုတ္ဘူး။ ဆက္ တိုက္ေနမွာ။ က်ေနာ္တို႔တိုင္းျပည္က ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းခ်င္တယ္။ တိုးတက္ခ်င္တယ္ဆို အေျဖရွာသင့္တယ္။

ေမး။ ။ အရင္တျခား တိုင္းရင္းသားေတြနဲ႔ တိုက္တဲ့အခ်ိန္တုန္းက ဒီေလာက္ထိလည္း လူမွုကြန္ရက္ေတြမွာ မပ်ံ႕ဘူး။ ကမၻာကလည္း သိပ္မသိဘူး။ အခုက်ေတာ့ သူတို႔ရဲ့ တိုက္ခိုက္မွုအားလုံးက အၾကမ္းဖက္မွု နဲ႔ တိုက္ ရိုက္သက္ဆိုင္တဲ့အခါက်ေတာ့ အဲဒီအေပၚမွာ ဘယ္ေလာက္အထိ ျပင္ဆင္မွုေတြရွိရမလဲ။ ဘယ္ေလာက္အထိ စိုးရိမ္သင့္လဲ။

ေျဖ။ ။ အဲဒါက အစိုးရေပၚမွာ တည္တယ္။ ဘာေၾကာင့္လဲဆို အၾကမ္းဖက္ သတ္မွတ္တာ တို႔ဘာတို႔က အစိုးရ ဘက္ ကပဲ လုပ္တာပဲ။ မၾကာေသးခင္တုန္းကလည္း ဒီ တအာန္း (TNLA) တို႔ ကခ်င္ တို႔ကိုလည္း အၾကမ္းဖက္ စာရင္းထဲ ထည့္ဖို႔ ႀကိဳးစားခဲ့တယ္။ လူအမ်ားက ျငင္းလို႔ မျဖစ္သြားတာ။ ဟိုဘက္ မျငင္းဘူးဆိုရင္ ျဖစ္သြားၿပီ။ က်ေနာ္ေျပာခ်င္တာက တကယ္ မဟုတ္ဘူး။ အစိုးရအေနနဲ႔ လက္ခံၿပီး ဒီဟာက အၾကမ္းဖက္ မဟုတ္ဘူးဆိုတာ ေျပာလို႔ရပါတယ္။ ။

Muhith urges UN for Rohingya safe zone

Finance Minister AMA Muhith has met United Nations’ Secretary General Antonio Guteress and pressed for a safe zone for Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh.

He also urged for a quick and permanent solution to the prevailing Rohingya crisis, said a press release of Bangladesh’s permanent mission to the United Nations.

UN chief Guteress lauded Bangladesh’s effort in sheltering the refugees and thanked Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina and her government for the humanitarian effort.

He assured the highest of cooperation from the UN in regard to the Rohingya crisis and said the UN is doing all that is necessary towards a solution to the problem.

Up until now, about 520,000 Rohingya refugees have crossed into Bangladesh facing persecution in Myanmar. UN fears of further exodus in face of more violence in Rakhine.

Bangladesh’s permanent representative to the UN, Masud Bin Momen, UNDP administrator Achim Stainer, and UN Under Secretary General Fekitamoeloa Katoa were among those present in the meeting held at UN headquarters in New York.

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Foreign minister: Myanmar’s proposal might be a trick

‘The Rohingya crisis is no longer an internal issue in Myanmar. It is a regional crisis now.’

When Foreign Minister AH Mahmood Ali was speaking at a discussion on Tuesday, he noted that “Myanmar’s proposal of partial repatriation might be a ‘trick’ to neutralise the mounting pressure from the international community.”

The minister was speaking at a roundtable discussion at Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies on Tuesday morning.

“Myanmar may curtail the number of repatriates using their own verification process and may delay the implementation of the recommendations from the Kofi Annan Commission advisory, giving various excuses.”

He said it would be difficult for Bangladesh to send back the Rohingya, who have fled the violent “ethnic cleansing” in Rakhine that began once again on August 25, to Myanmar without support from international community.

Also Read- Bangladesh foreign minister: Myanmar must play key role in resolving Rohingya crisis

“The Rohingya crisis is no longer an internal issue in Myanmar. It is a regional crisis now.”

Minister Mahmood Ali noted that the Myanmar army was strengthening their forces in Rakhine about a month before August 25.

On the Myanmar’s home minister’s plan for “demographic balance,” Mahmood said the Myanmar army was working with Buddhist extremists to execute their plan.

“It is quite noticeable that the Myanmar government is trying to sow confusion among the international community and their own citizens by promoting false news in their state-run media.

“They are trying to establish this issue as ‘Islamic terrorism’ or ‘extremist Bangali terrorism’. Their campaign plans to confuse their neighbours.

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Exclusive: West edges towards punishing Myanmar army leaders over Rohingya crisis – sources

YANGON/WASHINGTON (Reuters) – The European Union and the United States are considering targeted sanctions against Myanmar military leaders over an offensive that has driven more than 500,000 Rohingya Muslims out of the country, officials familiar with the discussions say.

Interviews with more than a dozen diplomats and government officials based in Washington, Yangon and Europe revealed that punitive measures aimed specifically at top generals were among a range of options being discussed in response to the crisis.

Nothing has yet been decided and Washington and Brussels may decide to hold off for now, the sources said. There are also discussions about increasing aid for violence-riven Rakhine state.

The active discussion of sanctions – not even on the table a month ago – shows how the dramatic exodus of Rohingya Muslims from Myanmar’s northwest is putting pressure on Western policymakers to take action.

While much of the outcry overseas has focused on Nobel laureate and Myanmar’s national leader Aung San Suu Kyi, few Western diplomats see an alternative to her leadership. Suu Kyi does not control the military, which still wields considerable power under Myanmar’s army-written constitution.

The EU Foreign Ministers Council will discuss Myanmar on Oct. 16, although officials do not expect any move on sanctions that soon. Danish minister for development cooperation, Ulla Tornaes, told Reuters that Copenhagen had been working to get the crisis on the agenda, “with the wish to put further pressure on the military”.

Two Washington-based U.S. officials with knowledge of the Trump administration’s Myanmar deliberations said targeted sanctions against commander-in-chief Min Aung Hlaing and several other generals, as well as leaders of ethnic Rakhine Buddhist militias accused of torching Rohingya villages, were under consideration.

Such sanctions – if decided on – would likely entail U.S. asset freezes, bans on travel to the United States, prohibitions against Americans doing business with them and other unspecified penalties. Washington was moving cautiously as it consulted with governments in Europe, Japan and Southeast Asia, the U.S. officials said.

A senior Yangon-based European diplomat also said Western countries were coordinating their response to the crisis and were in agreement that it was the military, and specifically the commander-in-chief, who needed to be targeted in any punitive action.

Any punishment was likely to be symbolic at first to allow room for further talks, Yangon-based diplomats said, giving the example of formally banning the army chief, who over the past year visited Brussels, Berlin and Vienna, from further travel to Europe.
Western diplomats admit their leverage is limited: compared with China, whose ties with Myanmar have warmed since Suu Kyi took office 18 months ago, U.S. and European investment and military engagement with the country are small.

They are also wary of action that could hurt the wider economy or destabilize already tense ties between Suu Kyi and the army.


The United Nations is pressing for increased humanitarian access to other parts of Rakhine, where hundreds of thousands of Rohingya remain. How Myanmar responds to calls for increased aid, the investigation of alleged atrocities or repatriation of refugees would be a key consideration in deciding what action to take, U.S. and EU diplomats in Myanmar said.

“We can pile political pressure, look into financing we have in Myanmar. We have humanitarian aid, as well as development aid … the European Commission won’t invest in the development of Myanmar if the conditions, including security, are not there,” said a Brussels-based EU diplomat who follows Myanmar.

A Rohingya refugee boy runs through a fence onto aid distribution premises at a refugee camp in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh October 8, 2017. REUTERS/Mohammad Ponir Hossain
“There is also the arms trade embargo and we discuss regularly whether we should reward the reforms in Myanmar and look at gradual easing of that, or the opposite.”

EU economic sanctions on Myanmar were lifted after the army stepped back from direct rule of the country in 2012, beginning the democratic transition that brought Suu Kyi to power last year, but an arms embargo in force since the 1990s remains. The United States removed most sanctions on Myanmar last autumn. It too has kept an arms embargo in place.

One Washington-based U.S. official said that, while there was no firm deadline, Washington hoped to have a plan of action on Myanmar in place by the time President Donald Trump travels to Asia for a series of summits in the first half of November.

The administration wanted to send a strong message to Myanmar’s military, but was concerned that too drastic action could allow China to expand its growing diplomatic and economic influence in the country, the official said.

There is little support in the administration for the re-imposition of broader economic sanctions, the official added.

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The White House declined comment on internal deliberations on the Rohingya crisis.


In another sign of pressure building on Myanmar, New York-based diplomats said the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) in the U.N. General Assembly was pushing for a human rights resolution on the country.

Last year the EU announced that for the first time in 15 years it would not introduce a resolution at the General Assembly’s Third Committee, which focuses on human rights, condemning Myanmar’s record – rewarding it for progress.

The European bloc could revive the resolution in the current session, taking on board the OIC draft and broadening it out beyond the Rohingya crisis, one diplomat in New York said.

Diplomats said some members of the U.N. Security Council were exploring whether the 15-member body could agree a formal statement, or even a resolution, calling for an end to the violence, full access for aid and the safe return of refugees.

However, Myanmar has said it was negotiating with China and Russia, which have veto powers in the Security Council, to protect it from any possible action. China and Russia have both expressed support for the Myanmar government.

Myanmar’s relations with the U.N. have grown increasingly testy since the discovery of World Food Programme-branded biscuits at a suspected militant camp in July prompted the government to accuse the U.N. agency of supporting the insurgents, forcing it to shut down its operations in Rakhine.

Myanmar is stalling on accepting a plan by the U.N. to upgrade the U.N. country head to the more powerful rank of Assistant Secretary-General (ASG) when its current top official, who is due to be rotated, is replaced.

Thaung Tun, Suu Kyi’s National Security Advisor, told Reuters that the U.N. “must treat us equally”.

“We’ll be fine with anybody if all member states have an ASG assigned. Not just us,” he said.

Reporting by Antoni Slodkowski in Yangon and Matt Spetalnick in Washington; Additional reporting by Michelle Nichols at the United Nations, Simon Lewis in Yangon, Teis Jensen in Copenhagen, Gabriela Baczynska and Robin Emmott in Brussels and John Irish in Paris; Editing by Alex Richardson
Our Standards:The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.

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